General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President of People’s Republic of China and Chairman of Central Military commission Xi Jinping gave a keynote speech marking 100th anniversary of the founding of Communist Partyof China in July 1,2021.
Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded in Shanghai in July 1,1921 and its first National Congress was held in July 23,1921.As Tiananmen Square,the gate of heavenly peace has testimony of many historic events, two hours commemoration of building its first centenary had gathered 70,000 spectators show casing its fourth generation supersonic advanced aircraft fighter jet over the avenue of Tiananmen Square.
The Chinese nation and Nationality has solemnly declared its unyielding, tenacious and perseverance pedigree to realize great rejuvenation of Chinese nation. Intrinsically, red flag waving in the east forgessoaring dragon in the 21st century.
Under the leadership of CPC, it has become the world largest and longest governing party in the world with 1.4 billion people and now it has total of95.148 million party members drastically shift from 50 members in 1921 and 4.49 million in 1949.Severalpolitical parties in the world has history of 100 years serving the people’s interest.
Since opium war Chinese nation confronted its disintegration following Taiping revolution, first Sino-Japanese war, Boxer Rebellion, Xinhai revolution ended Qing Dynasty (Manchu emperor),warlord era, Northern expedition, agrarian revolution, Anti-fascist war against Japanese aggression thatenkindledparty’s formation. The beacon of Communist Party of China starts from May 4th movement of 1919, at the time Chinese nationalism flaredwhen some landlords in warlord era chagrin their own soil in treaty of Versailles.
Subsequently,handful of revolutionary leadersLi Dazhao who was librarian at thePeking University and Chen Duxiu, author of New youth magazine ledstone foundation to the commencement of Communist Party of China.
What is historical red culture spirit of Communist Party of China?
The essence of “Red colour” hongse (inChinese)has the depth connotation in Chinese Red culture spirit consist of nationalistic red music, red army, revolutionary,red books, red culture, red envelope, red latern and red philosophy.Red colour theory incalculates its significance of auspiciousness in China.
With the founding ofCommunist Party of China (CPC), the soul of CPC reflects three milestones to the inception of People’s Republic of China, that is Jinggangshan Spirit, the Yan’an spirit and Xibaipo spirit. Playing red music atJinggangshan mountain in Jiangxi province put forth the goal of throwing three highmountains(imperialism, feudalism and capitalism). Mao Zedong opined the new idea of seizing power through encircling cities through countryside after the failure of Nanchang uprising and Autumn harvest uprising in 1927.As a result, Sanwan reorganisation sinicizedMarxism with the reality of China’s national condition embraced communist ideologydwindling classical orthodox Marxism.
Long March (1934-1935)from Ruijin of Jiangxi provinceto Yan’an Northwest Shaanxi was another epoch-making from escaping encirclement and suppressionof Chiang Kai ShekGuomintang Nationalist reactionaries.The Yan’an period (1935-1948), streamlined Mao Zedong Thought in the whole party.Zunyi conference(Zūnyì Huìyì遵义会议)andYan’an rectification campaign deviateddoctrinaire of“28 Bolsheviks” led by WangMing eventually,gave rise to consolidation of power to Mao Zedong as “Chairman Mao”in 1943.
Xibaipo period in Hebei Province set the last rural command post in the course of new democratic revolution. Chairman Mao and other Party Central Committee left Xibaipo for entering Beiping or Beijing, liberated People’s Republic of China. In 1945, the Seventh National Congress of Communist Party of China theorised the guiding principle of Mao Zedong Thought in the whole party.
The Xibaipospirit gave importance doctrine to “two must” spirit that constitute the all party cadres should maintain a modest, cautions, non-arrogant,prudent, patient style and hard working, which legitimatize till recent times. In a long term, it profoundly reflects conscience sense of CPC giving no ground for complacency.Most of the Chinese people sees their leaders as sober headed and well discipline, wrangling or outcry for power position don’t display in Chinese politics.
For almost twentyyearsfrom mid-1950s to mid-1970s, there was a series setbacks of left tendenciesin the party and the state.A decade long cultural revolution hadperilled ramification producing millions tons of steel,500 billion yuan economic loss, the average annualincome of peasant less than 50 yuanintensified the questions of Socialism and ideological obscurity. The consequencesset by the great leap forward, people’s commune and socalled proletarian movement of cultural revolution puzzled the implications of left leaning. After crushing gang of four and disturbances from Madame Mao begins the resolute organisation within CPC.
This historic journey has entourage from Century of humiliation to its first centennial goal of building “Xiaogang”moderately prosperous societyhithertopaving its footpath towards second centennial goal of makingsocialist modern nation, from semi-feudal and semi-colonial to vibrant socialist market economy,relatively stagnant economy to world second largest economy which is expected to surpass United States in less than a decade.
Deng Xiaoping era of reform and opening-up
The paramount leader and an architect of modern China,once he said – Do not debate! is my greatest invention. He was a pragmatist and foresight leader who would brusquely give answer in one or two words. A Guangmingdaily article titled, “Practice is the sole criterion for truth” was published in May, 1978 stirred intense argument. Deng Xiaoping pointed out that it was ridiculous to question it, he said I staunchly prop up the point of emancipation shackles of unrealistic and dogmatic concepts.In the historic moment it is not easy to implement realistic goals, he seems sagacity on affirming his zeal to burn the passion of Chinese people of that era.
Thus, it underpins the Deng Xiaoping theory relying on Mao’s seeking truth from facts, emancipating the mind and seeking truths from facts (shìshíqiúshì事实求是) . The door was opened to the world, set truth standard and walks towards the path of socialistmarket disapproving Mao’sheir Hua Guo-feng “two generalities”.
The party flaws from the people using coupons till 1980s for everyday consumption such as grain, oil, sugar, pork, etc. to eradicating big pot meal system which is called, “fèichú dàguōfàn 废除大锅饭”,upholding the four cardinal principles (sìxiàng jīběn yuánzé四项基本原则) and Socialist Market economy i.e, shèhuìzhǔyì shìchǎng jīngjì社会主义市场经济 incalculates New Deng’s era.Ushering in what Chinese calls a new long march, Third plenum of the 11th Central Committee of Communist Party from December 18 to December 22, 1978, Deng Xiaoping the then Vice-premier of the State Council proposed a pragmatic blueprint to China’s market driven economic policies.
At the initial phase of adopting socialist market economy, Vice Premier Gu Mu led 36 daydelegation to Europe and other countrieswas the striking eyes openerfor China’s economy, science and technology. The findingswas that China was lingering twenty, thirty, forty and fifty years behind then those developed nations. Notwithstanding, Thousands of students flow from China to Western world to learn in the condition of returning to China serving for its motherland.
Patriotism, dedication and indomitable passion of Chinese people entails Deng’s second revolutionary era. Deng reintroduce the National Entrance Examination to all universities, the so-called gaokao (gāokǎo 高考) and urged intellectual to return China.It was the peak era of Chinese nationals going overseas.
In the book “Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China” by Ezra Vogel writes Westerners fantasize Deng’s pragmatist approach devising he was a capitalist at heart and lead China towards a Western – style democracy. Over 40-plus years China has advanced innovation and reform through its own national conditions and political system.Ironically, Deng was explicit onChina’s“Market Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”. Even thoughhe said, “therewas no threat of bringing technology and investment from West”, he rejected universal triumph of Western liberal democracy.
The keydecision to implement special policies in special economic zones in Guangdong and Fujian province has undergoneearthshaking changes such as Shenzhen, the fishing village has now turned into “China’s Silicon Valley”, powerhouse of technology like Huawei, Tencent, etc. Xi Jinping father, Xi Zhong Xun played pivotal role in designing SpecialEconomic Zones (SEZs). Today, we can see sea change in the town and cities of the Pearl river Delta Economic Zones.The region permeates free trade zones to robust its high tech innovationand technology.
Chinahas demonstrated high competency in railways. The most exemplaryis the Qinghai Tibet railway that opened in 2006 was built within 6 years. More than one hundred thousands workforceinvolved carrying five kilos of oxygen cylinder in mid 1950s when road was constructed to connect Xizang with inland of China , the workforce of PLA worked in the highest plateaus with rope around the waist, life hanging in the waist which has cost lives of thousands average age of 23 years. Ahead memorial of first centenary, new railway in the High plateau has been operated Lhasa-Nyingchi railway, first electric fuxing bullet train runs 160 kilometres per hour that passes through 47 tunnels, 121 bridges and Yarlung Zangbo ( Brahmaputra) sixteen times.
In May 2016, Xi Jinping stressed at the twenty fourth meeting of Central Deepening Reform Group that it is necessary to realize the principle that reform is tentatively painful, but there will be long pain without reform. “Gaige Kaifang” known as reform and opening up embarked the turning point in the history of CPC.
Zero poverty, spirit of Chinese nation
When world is still fighting against Pandemic, China has miraculously declared decisive victory over extreme poverty, UN sustainable goal of 2030, ten years ahead the schedule. Through rural revitalization, China lifted nearly 770 million impoverished people with per capita disposable income of rural poor jumps from 6000 yuanto 12000 yuan in 2020.This is commendable to hail the moderately prosperous society.
This shows party prolific envision towards people centric philosophy which has given learning impetus to the entire world. Within eight years from 2012 to 2020, China has enriched its socialism with Chinese characteristics.It is undeniable fact that if these strategic poverty were not prioritised then people would not have shown firm belief to its party. As it is the sole governing party of the state but during two sessions of national Congress, it also takes consultation on policies with other eight parties in the country.
If contemplate towards right leadership, its core values and assertion for determination , country don’t derail its foothold pathsseekinghappiness to its people. There must be tenacious goal apart from which system is ruling the nation, Chinese Dream, Chinese cause, Chinese glory and Chinese struggle have demonstratedits belief in its rule based governance.
CPC avowed to curb corruption ensuring transparency based on rule of law with its famous slogan –striking tigers and swatting mosquito which provoked stringent stance towards bribery and embezzlement. The 18thNational Congress of CPC, under the disciplinary Inspection supervisionary launched anti-corruption campaign crackdown. According to its report, six hundred thousands were investigated and over six hundred thousands were punished.
In this epic journey of first centennial, some of the outstanding honarary receivers has been idolized as catalyst, one of them is Laoshi Zhang Guimei,her story is heart wrenching who contributed her whole life for giving free education to poor girl children of Yunnan province. On her speech she told its indeed her endeavour to change the future of three generations. These ordinary people are honoured for their selfless effort giving birth to more heroes.
Following the guidelines, principles, and policies set forth at Third plenary session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, the third generation leadership with Jiang Zemin as the core and the fourth generation leadership led by General Secretary Hu Jintao all Chinese people to achieve continuous progress in the undertakings of the Party and the County. Instance, if these leaders do not led to original aspiration of Chinese ordinary people, it was not possible to bring people from starvation in 1970s to economic miracle.
Reform and opening-up defines contemporary China. Recently, under the leadership of Chinese President Xi Jinping, China advocates a global community of shared future for mankind and international cooperation projects like Belt and Road Initiative, Chinese socialism is striving for the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.Deng break a shackle of parochialism into pragmatism tailwind for China.
Major : School of Marxism (Study of China’s Reform and Development)